This post touch bases upon:
- Explain the hierarchical structure of the Domain Name System (DNS).
- Differentiate between domains, subdomains, and zones.
- Identify the differences between different resource record types.
The Domain Name System
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system that serves as a directory of networked hosts and resources. Information in the directory maps network names to data and is maintained in logical entries known as resource records. The DNS hierarchy begins with the root domain “.” at the top and branches downward to multiple next-level domains.
Each level of the DNS hierarchy is delineated by the “.” in domain names, with “.” as the top level. Domains such as com, net, and org occupy the second level of the hierarchy and domains such as example.com occupy the third level and so on. When working with DNS, it is important to clarify some of the common terms used to refer to the structure of the DNS hierarchy, such as domain, subdomain, and zone.
A domain is a collection of resource records that ends in a common name and represents an entire subtree of the DNS name space, such as example.com. The largest possible domain is the root domain, “.”, which includes the whole DNS namespace.
A top-level domain (TLD) is a domain that has only one component. Generic TLDs (gTLDs) were originally organized by theme, and include .com, .edu, .net, etc. Country code TLDs (ccTLDs) are organized on a national basis, and include .us, .uk, .cn, .ru, etc.
A subdomain is a domain that is a subtree of another domain. This term is used when discussing the relationship of two domains to each other. For example, lab.example.com is a subdomain of example.com.
A zone is the portion of a domain for which a particular nameserver is directly responsible, or authoritative. This may be an entire domain or just part of a domain with some or all of its subdomains delegated to other nameserver(s).
Anatomy of DNS Lookups
When a system needs to perform name resolution using a DNS server, it begins by sending queries to the servers listed in /etc/resolv.conf in order, until it gets a response or runs out of servers. The host or dig commands can be used to manually look up DNS names.
Local authoritative data
When the query arrives at a DNS server, the server ﬁrst determines whether the information being queried resides in a zone that it is authoritative for. If the server is an authority for the zone that the name or address being queried belongs to, then the server responds to the client with the information contained in its local zone ﬁle. This type of response is referred to as an authoritative answer (aa), since the server providing the response is authoritative for the data provided. Authoritative answers from a nameserver have the aa ﬂag turned on in the header of the DNS response.
Local cached non-authoritative data
If the DNS server is not an authority for the record in question but has recently obtained the record to answer a previous query, it may still have a copy of the record in its cache. The cache is where answers to queries are stored for a speciﬁed time, determined by a value contained in every resource record response called the Time To Live (TTL). If an answer exists in the server’s cache, it is provided to the client. This answer will not have the aa ﬂag set since the server is not authoritative for the data being provided.
Remote non-authoritative data via recursion
If the DNS server is not authoritative for the name being queried, and it does not possess the record in its cache, it will then attempt to retrieve the record via an iterative process known as recursion. A DNS server with an empty cache begins the recursion process by querying one of the root nameservers by IP address retrieved from its local, pre-populated root hints ﬁle. The root nameserver will then likely respond with a referral, which indicates the nameservers that are authoritative for the TLD that contains the name being queried.
Upon receiving the referral, the DNS server will then perform another iterative query to the TLD authoritative nameserver it was referred to. Depending on whether there are further remaining delegations in the name being queried, this authoritative nameserver will either send an authoritative answer or yet another referral. This continues until an authoritative server is reached and responds with an authoritative answer.
The ﬁnal answer, along with all the intermediate answers obtained prior to it, are cached by the DNS server to improve performance. If during a lookup for www.example.com the DNS server ﬁnds out that the example.com zone has authoritative nameservers, it will query those servers directly for any future queries for information in the example.com zone, rather than starting recursion again at the root nameservers
DNS Resource Records
DNS resource records (RRs) are entries in a DNS zone that specify information about a particular name or object in the zone. A resource record contains a type, a TTL, a class, and data elements organized in the following format:
owner-name TTL class type data www.example.com. 300 IN A 192.168.1.10
Resource Record Fields
|owner-name||The name for this resource record|
|TTL||The Time To Live of the resource record in seconds. This speciﬁes how long this resource record should be cached by DNS resolvers.|
|type||The type indicates the sort of information stored by this record. For example, an A record maps a host name to an IPv4 address.|
|class||The type indicates the sort of information stored by this record. For example, an A record maps a host name to an IPv4 address.|
|data||The data stored by this record. The exact format varies by record type.|
There are a number of important resource record types:
A (IPv4 address) records
An A resource record maps a host name to an IPv4 address.
$ host -v -t A example.com Trying "example.com" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 22681 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;example.com. IN A ;; ANSWER SECTION: example.com. 86400 IN A 172.25.254.254 Recieved 96 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 1 ms
AAAA (IPv6 address) records
An AAAA resource record (“quad-A” record) maps a host name to an IPv6 address.
$ host -v -t AAAA a.root-servers.net Trying "a.root-servers.net" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 18194 ;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 13, ADDITIONAL: 12 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;a.root-servers.net. IN AAAA ;; ANSWER SECTION: a.root-servers.net. 604800 IN AAAA 2001:503:ba3e::2:30 Received 64 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 78 ms
CNAME (canonical name) records
A CNAME resource record aliases one name to another name (the canonical name), which should have A or AAAA records. When a DNS resolver receives a CNAME record in response to a query, it will reissue the query using the canonical name instead of the original name.
The data ﬁeld of CNAME records can point to a name anywhere in DNS, whether internal or external to the zone:
www-dev.example.com. IN CNAME lab.example.com. www.example.com. IN CNAME www.google.com.
CNAME records are useful, but should be used with some care. In general, pointing a CNAME records to other CNAME records should be avoided for efﬁciency and fragility reasons and to avoid creating a CNAME loop by accident. The chain of CNAME record must end in A and/or AAAA records. Note that there are legitimate uses for CNAME chains when using Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) to improve the speed and reliability of data delivery over the Internet. Likewise, NS and MX records must not be pointed at CNAME records but at names with A and/or AAAA records.
$ host -v -t A ipa-ca.server0.example.com Trying "ipa-ca.server0.example.com" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 11931 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;ipa-ca.server0.example.com. IN A ;; ANSWER SECTION: ipa-ca.server0.example.com. 86400 IN CNAME server0.example.com. server0.example.com. 86400 IN A 172.25.0.11 Recieved 125 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 1 ms
PTR (pointer) records
A PTR record maps IPv4 or IPv6 addresses to a hostname. They are used for reverse DNS resolution. PTR records code the IP address in a special format that acts like a hostname. For IPv4 addresses, the address is reversed, most speciﬁc part ﬁrst, and the result is treated as a host in a subdomain of the special domain in-addr.arpa. For IPv6 addresses, the address is split into subdomains on nibble boundaries (every hexadecimal digit) and set up as a subdomain of the special domain ip6.arpa, as seen in the following example. While this syntax may seem strange, it makes it simpler for DNS administrators to delegate responsibility for ranges of addresses to other DNS administrators.
$ host -v -t PTR 172.25.0.10 Trying "10.0.25.172.in-addr.arpa" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 36389 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;10.0.25.172.in-addr.arpa. IN PTR ;; ANSWER SECTION: 10.0.25.172.in-addr.arpa. 86400 IN PTR desktop0.example.com. Received 127 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 2 ms
$ host -v -t PTR 2001:503:ba3e::2:30 Trying "0.3.0.0.126.96.36.199.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.e.3.a.b.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.ip6.arpa" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 32138 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;0.3.0.0.220.127.116.11.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.e.3.a.b.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.ip6.arpa. IN PTR ;; ANSWER SECTION: 0.3.0.0.126.96.36.199.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.e.3.a.b.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.ip6.arpa. 86400 IN PTR a.root-servers.net. Received 122 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 174 ms
NS (name server) records
An record maps a domain name to a DNS name server which is authoritative for its DNS zone. Every public authoritative name server for the zone must have an NS record.
$ host -v -t NS example.com Trying "example.com" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 29362 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 2 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;example.com. IN NS ;; ANSWER SECTION: example.com. 86400 IN NS classroom.example.com. Received 80 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 0 ms
SOA (start of authority) records
An SOA record provides information about how a DNS zone works.
There will be exactly one SOA record for a zone. It speciﬁes which of the zone’s name servers is the primary one (the master), information on how secondary (slave) name servers should update their copy of the information, and the zone’s management contact. Its data ﬁeld contains the following elements:
SOA record data elements
|Master nameserver||The host name of the nameserver which is the original source of domain information, and which may accept dynamic DNS updates if the zone supports them|
|RNAME||The email address of the person responsible for the DNS zone (the hostmaster). The @ in the email address is replaced with a “.” in the RNAME. For example, an email address of email@example.com is written as hostmaster.example.com.|
|Serial number||The version number of the zone, which is increased when there is any change to zone records|
|Refresh||How frequently the slave servers should check for zone updates, in seconds.|
|Retry||How long a slave server should wait before retrying a failed refresh attempt, in seconds|
|Expiry||If refreshes have been failing, how long a slave server should wait before it stops using its old copy of the zone to respond to queries, in seconds.|
|Minimum||If a resolver looks up a name and it does not exist (gets a nonexistent domain (NXDOMAIN) response), how long it should cache the information that the record does not exist, in seconds.|
$ host -v -t SOA example.com Trying "example.com" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 58434 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;example.com. IN SOA ;; ANSWER SECTION: example.com. 86400 IN SOA classroom.example.com. root.classroom.example.com. 2013091600 3600 300 604800 60 Received 121 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 0 ms
MX (mail exchange) records
An MX record maps a domain name to a mail exchange which will accept email for that name. The data for this record type is a preference number (lowest preferred) used to determine the order in which to pick between multiple MX records, and a host name for a mail exchange for that name.
$ host -v -t MX example.com Trying "example.com" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 47187 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;example.com. IN MX ;; ANSWER SECTION: example.com. 86400 IN MX 10 classroom.example.com. Received 96 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 0 ms
TXT (text) records
A TXT record is used to map a name to arbitrary human-readable text. TXT records are commonly used to supply data used by Sender Policy Framework (SPF),DomainKeys Identiﬁed Mail (DKIM), Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC), and so on.
$ host -v -t TXT lwn.net Trying "lwn.net" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 41137 ;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;lwn.net. IN TXT ;; ANSWER SECTION: lwn.net. 28619 IN TXT "v=spf1 ip4:220.127.116.11 ip4:18.104.22.168 -all" Received 638 bytes from 192.168.2.11#53 in 74 ms
SRV (service) records
An SRV record is used to locate the hosts which support a particular service for a domain. Using a domain name formatted to include a service and a protocol name, _service._protocol.domainname, SRV records provide the names of the hosts that provide that service for the domain, as well as the port number that the service listens on. SRV records also include priority and weight values to indicate the order in which hosts should be used when multiple hosts are available for a particular service.
This example SRV record indicates that the server0.example.com domain provides the LDAP service using TCP on port 389 on host server0.example.com with a priority of 0and a weighting of 100.
$ host -v -t SRV _ldap._tcp.server0.example.com Trying "_ldap._tcp.server0.example.com" ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 35665 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 3 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;_ldap._tcp.server0.example.com. IN SRV ;; ANSWER SECTION: _ldap._tcp.server0.example.com. 86400 IN SRV 0 100 389 server0.example.com. Received 154 bytes from 172.25.254.254#53 in 0 ms
Hosts And Resource Records
A typical host, whether a client or a server, will have the following records:
- One or more A and/or AAAA records mapping its host name to its IP addresses
- A PTR record for each of its IP addresses, reverse mapping them to its host name
- Optionally, one or more CNAME records mapping alternate names to its canonical host name
A DNS zone will typically have, in addition to the records for the hosts in the zone:
- Exactly one SOA record to specify how the zone works
- An NS record for each of its authoritative name servers
- One or more MX records mapping the domain name to the mail exchange which receives email for addresses ending in the domain name
- Optionally, one or more TXT records for functions such as SPF or Google Site Veriﬁcation
- Optionally, one or more SRV records to locate services in the domain