How to Extend and Reduce a Volume Group in LVM
Extending and Reducing a Volume Group
You can add more disk space to a volume group by adding additional physical volumes. This is called extending the volume group. Then, you can assign the new physical extents from the additional physical volumes to logical volumes.
You can remove unused physical volumes from a volume group. This is called reducing the volume group. First, use the pvmovecommand to move data from extents on one physical volume to extents on other physical volumes in the volume group. In this way, a new disk can be added to an existing volume group, data can be moved from an older or slower disk to a new disk, and the old disk removed from the volume group. You can perform these actions while the logical volumes in the volume group are in use.
Extending a Volume Group
To extend a volume group, perform the following steps:
1. Prepare the physical device and create the physical volume
As with creating a new volume group, you must create and prepare a new partition for use as a physical volume if there are none prepared already.
[[email protected] ~]# parted -s /dev/vdb mkpart primary 1027MiB 1539MiB [[email protected] ~]# parted -s /dev/vdb set 3 lvm on [[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/vdb3
A PV only needs to be created if there are no PVs free to extend the VG.
2. Extend the volume group
Use vgextend to add the new physical volume to the volume group. Use the VG name and PV device name as arguments to vgextend.
[[email protected] ~]# vgextend vg01 /dev/vdb3
This extends the vg01 VG by the size of the /dev/vdb3 PV.
3. Verify that the new space is available
Use vgdisplay to confirm the additional physical extents are available. Inspect the Free PE / Size in the output. It should not be zero.
[[email protected] ~]# vgdisplay vg01 --- Volume group -- VG Name vg01 ...output omitted... Free PE / Size 178 / 712.00 MiB ...output omitted...
Reducing a Volume Group
To reduce a volume group, perform the following steps:
1. Move the physical extents
Use pvmove PV_DEVICE_NAME to relocate any physical extents from the physical volume you want to remove to other physical volumes in the volume group. The other physical volumes must have a sufficient number of free extents to accommodate this move. This is only possible if there are enough free extents in the VG and if all of those come from other PVs.
[[email protected] ~]# pvmove /dev/vdb3
This command moves the PEs from /dev/vdb3 to other PVs with free PEs in the same VG.
WARNING: Before using pvmove, back up data stored on all logical volumes in the volume group. An unexpected power loss during the operation may leave the volume group in an inconsistent state. This could cause loss of data on logical volumes in the volume group.
2. Reduce the volume group
Use vgreduce VG_NAME PV_DEVICE_NAME to remove a physical volume from a volume group.
[[email protected] ~]# vgreduce vg01 /dev/vdb3
This removes the /dev/vdb3 PV from the vg01 VG and it can now be added to another VG. Alternatively, pvremove can be used to permanently stop using the device as a PV.